Origins of the Etruscan civilization
The Etruscans were skilled merchants and refined craftsmen of ceramic and gold, they are remembered for their artistic ability, imagination, resourcefulness and aptitude in the management of maritime trade in the Mediterranean. The Etruscan civilization spread in the Italian peninsula at the beginning of the Iron Age around the tenth-ninth century a.C. The first settlements were in the Po Valley, Tuscany, Northern Lazio and Campania.
The Etruscan mystery
Many are the conjectures (discordant) on their origin: Erotodo told of people coming from Lydia (Minor Asia), who, due to the terrible famine, put to sea and led by the leader “Tyrrhenian” landed in the Italian territory. Dionysius of Halicarnassus claimed that they were people native to this place; a third hypothesis compares the Etruscans to the people of Reti of Alps, so coming here from the north. Currently, the Etruscology is oriented on two different positions: in Italy, they think that the Etruscan civilization owes its formation to a slow process of integration between the native population of Central Italy and Villanovan culture, as well as cultural and linguistic influences from the East and the Central Europe; while other researchers base their theories on linguistic comparisons and thus support the oriental origin and in particular that Greek and Turkish.
The Etruscans of Maremma
The Maremman Etruscan civilization, whose fame reached in the sixth century its greatest splendor, was educated, hardworking and aristocratic, as demonstrated by the numerous testimonies collected in the most famous cities such as Roselle, Vetulonia, Sorano, Sovana, Pitigliano and Ghiaccio Forte. The ability to trade, the love for the art and beauty, but especially the vocation to peace did not help it to create a strong internal consistency. It was the lack of a unitary state the reason for the disappearance of the Etruscan civilization, in fact after the capture of Veio in 396 a.C, the other cities did not join and did not intervene immediately, this was the reason why, before Roselle in 294 a.C and then all the Maremman Etruria fell under the Roman rule